Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement that need to be well represented in teachers’ pedagogy and praxis.


  • Creating the environment for Learning
  1. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  2. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  3. Cooperative Learning


  • Helping Students Develop Understanding
  1. Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers
  2. Nonlinguistic Representations
  3. Summarizing and Note Taking
  4. Assigning Homework and Providing Practice


  • Helping Students Extend and Apply Knowledge
  1. Identifying Similarities and differences
  2. Generating and Testing hypotheses


  • Putting the Instructional Strategies to use
  1. Instructional Planning Using the Nine Categories of strategies


Research Behind the Strategies

The strategies featured in the book were identified through a meta-analysis of instruction conducted by MCRel (Marzano, 1998) and presented in the first edition of Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001). This second Edition builds on that research and incorporates findings from a study that clarifies the concepts related to each of the nine categories identified  in the fist edition (Beesley and Apthorp, 2010), and it uses an analysis of the literature published since the first edition to provide an updated estimate of each strategy’s effect on student achievement. We present these effect sizes as part of the discussion of each strategy.

Classroom Instruction that Works /Geri B. Dean 2012… (et al). – 2nd edition

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